Building Assets, Reducing Risks (BARR) is an organizational approach to promoting students' social and emotional learning. BARR is designed to be implemented in grades 6 through 10. The program organizes each grade level into teams. Each team is led by three teachers from core academic subjects (i.e., math, English, sciences, or social sciences) who are responsible for 80-120 students. Teachers on each team continually monitor the academic achievement and behavioral adjustment of the students assigned to them. The members of each team meet as a group to reflect on these ratings and to identify students at-risk. Teams also meet with school support staff on a weekly basis to develop plans for those at-risk students. This process requires daily teacher time and time in the schedule for team meetings. BARR also provides a set of activities for relationship building between teachers and students called "I-Time." BARR is designated as a Complementary program because there is a limited emphasis on the promotion of students' personal competence.
Schools implementing BARR hold an orientation for parents on the topic of the developmental needs of adolescents. Parents are also invited to serve on a parent advisory council.
According to the program's recommended implementation model, BARR's professional development takes place over three years. During that time BARR offers a total of six days of onsite training (two days per year) with additional monthly phone calls for technical assistance with each school's assigned BARR educator/trainer as well as two additional onsite technical assistance and coaching visits each year. In the first year's training, which in most schools takes place early in the fall of the ninth-grade year, an administrator, a school counselor, and the core subject teachers for ninth grade attend an initial two-day training. These are always onsite trainings with two trainers, a current BARR educator assigned to work with the school across its full implementation period and a professional trainer from the program's publisher, Hazelden. The content of this initial training is the overall BARR approach. In the following two years BARR provides four days of onsite training, usually two days per year. Schools may choose based on their needs among such topics as trauma-informed classrooms, substance use, equity, and effective team meetings, to name a few of the offerings.
BARR provides significant ongoing support following the initial training. The assigned BARR educator calls once a month to check on implementation progress and offer technical assistance on barriers to implementation and other issues as needed. The "BARR coordinator" for the school facilitates the team meetings and acts as the primary liaison with the BARR educator and the school's administration. For onsite technical assistance in the first year BARR recommends two day-long visits from the school's assigned BARR educator, with the first one spaced 6-8 weeks after the initial training and the second typically taking place toward the end of the year. During these visits, the BARR educator observes core aspects of the program's implementation, interacts with administrators and teachers, reviews structural components, and assesses program fidelity. This is followed by a detailed coaching report identifying areas in need of improvement or more attention and debriefs with the school's BARR coordinator and a school administrator. In the subsequent two years BARR offers one day-long onsite visit of a similar nature. A Train the Trainer model is available in which the BARR coordinator can be trained as a trainer to provide ongoing support for the program.
Results of a 2013 randomized control trial evaluation supported the effectiveness of Building Assets-Reducing Risk. This evaluation was conducted on a sample of 548 adolescents in grade 9 (Hispanic = 37%, White = 52%, Other = 11%). It found that students who participated in the program reported more academic credits earned, higher standardized test scores in math, and higher standardized test scores in reading (nine months after baseline), compared to students from the control group and controlling for baseline differences in outcome.
CHARACTERplus Way uses an organizational approach to promote students' social and emotional learning. The program works at the district level with a leadership team established at the beginning of a three-year implementation process. The leadership team includes the superintendent, two principals, two teachers, a counselor or social worker, and two parents or community members.
In the first year the leadership team meets regularly to develop a character education policy, to prioritize desirable character traits, to organize data-based planning and evaluation, and to plan staff professional development. They also develop strategies and guidelines for building community involvement. In the second year the program is introduced to schools through trainings with staff conducted by the leadership team. In the third year the leadership team introduces the staff to four classroom and schoolwide strategies based on the Caring School Community program (used with permission).
At the classroom level CHARACTERplus Way focuses on helping teachers to create classroom environments in which students feel safe and where their opinions and concerns are taken seriously. The program makes instructional activities highly interactive and also emphasizes cooperative learning strategies. Students participate in meaningful conversations in order to develop positive class norms, work with others, engage in meaningful relationships, and feel connected to school. Teachers are also responsible for implementing the character development activities developed by the leadership team, with input from the whole school community, across the curriculum.
At the classroom and school level the program promotes a positive climate through activities such as pledges, mottoes, and codes of honor. Additional schoolwide strategies include providing students with opportunities to participate in school and district committees and to serve in leadership roles as peer role models, mentors, and advisors for classmates. CHARACTERplus Way resources include guidelines for organizing meetings with parents regarding their engagement in their child's school life and more generally about parenting practices. Also, an experiential learning component strengthens connections between classroom learning and the real world and encourages involvement of a broad range of community stakeholders.
CHARACTERplus Way employs a train-the-trainer model. Once the leadership team is identified, a required schoolwide or districtwide climate assessment survey is used to identify strengths, weaknesses, and areas for growth or improvement. The survey is repeated annually, and data are used to identify goals and drive program activities for the subsequent year. A three-day training for the leadership team includes a review of the survey results, development of an initial action plan based on those results, and training in the content and implementation of the program. Leadership training takes place either at the program's St. Louis headquarters, another central location, or onsite. Following the training, the leadership team goes back to the schools, where teachers, parents, and students vote on the schoolwide and communitywide character traits they want to prioritize. The leadership team then trains the staff in its school buildings.
The first session, a three-hour orientation, is followed by six hours of customized training to integrate CHARACTERplus Way approaches throughout the school or district. The focus is on building student leadership and community engagement and implementing character and other agreed-upon goals across both the school and home settings. The program provides another 23 hours of training and other types of ongoing support through offsite trainings and networking to create professional learning communities. Networking is a strong emphasis of the program, as is coaching of the leadership team both on and offsite. Also, the leadership team attends regional and national trainings as part of the networking process. The program's detailed facilitator guide provides a core set of materials for networking, group training sessions, and the development of professional learning communities.
Results of a 2011 randomized control trial evaluation supported the effectiveness of CHARACTERplus Way. This evaluation was conducted on a sample of students in grades 8 and 11 from 31 Missouri public schools. Participants from schools that received the intervention reported better school climate and culture, had more prosocial behavior, and had higher rates of proficiency in Communication Arts (after four years of implementation), compared to students from control schools that did not receive the intervention, controlling for baseline differences in outcomes.
CHARACTERplus Way is designated as Promising because although the overall effects of the program evaluations are positive, there was one study in which outcomes favored the comparison group over the intervention group.
|Consistency Management & Cooperative Discipline® Setting Ratings|
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Consistency Management & Cooperative Discipline® (CMCD®) is a teacher training program designed to enhance students' social, emotional, and academic learning through the use of teaching practices. The program provides a series of seven brief professional development workshops that focus on teacher-student interactions, classroom environment, and classroom management. The workshops are organized around the following topics: Creating a positive learning environment (and preventing classroom problems), Creating a caring community, Taking a stand against bullying (face-to-face and cyber-bullying), Managing cooperative groups, Energizing curricula with active learning and higher order questions, Effective use of time and learning from each other, Managing disruptive behaviors/building positive relationships, Make and Take (to create resources to use in the program). The teacher training workshops provide a broad array of strategies and methods with varying levels of implementation direction. An important emphasis of CMCD® is citizenship in the classroom. Students become classroom "managers" with a large number of roles. In addition, there are guidelines for how to develop shared classroom rules. The program encourages teachers to provide positive reinforcement to encourage student conduct and provides mostly intrinsic with some extrinsic strategies. CMCD® includes a workshop for school leaders that supports schoolwide implementation of the program by providing guidance in supporting teachers and using data for data-based decision-making. In terms of family involvement, the program suggests strategies for building relationships and communicating with parents, leading effective parent-teacher meetings, and conducting a parent workshop.
The developers of CMCD® suggest a two-year implementation and professional development process to ensure high-quality implementation. The program uses a sequence of training that starts with a one-day training for teachers and principals, preferably in the summer. This is followed by six 90-minute workshops over the course of the school year. The six sessions provide teachers with information that is relevant using a "just in time" approach such that CMCD® trainings align with issues students are likely to be dealing with at a particular time in the semester. All training is provided onsite and in person. Principals are required to attend the first day-long training. Additional training for administrators is available and recommended but not required.
CMCD® also includes two years of individual or group coaching. In the second year the focus includes identifying the "best implementing" teachers, who are then trained to become "Teacher Implementation Pioneers" (TIP teachers) in a train-the-trainer model that helps address sustainability of CMCD® over time within that school or district. CMCD® also provides fidelity monitoring, specifically an assessment called the Walkabout TM that provides feedback to teachers in a nonevaluative framework and also helps to identify challenges that can be addressed by coaching.
Results of a 2011 quasi-experimental evaluation supported the program's effectiveness. This evaluation was conducted with 344 students who had repeated grade (29.5% Black; 69% Hispanic). Students participating in the program achieved higher standardized test scores for reading and math when compared to students in the control group. Group differences were statistically significant when assessed 12 months after the baseline while controlling for outcome pretest scores.
|EL Education Setting Ratings|
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EL Education is an organizational approach to social and emotional learning that also promotes students' development through teaching practices and infusion in academic curricula. The program offers an open-source English Language Arts curriculum that focuses on building cultural sensitivity and appreciation for diversity. The whole-school transformation needed to become an EL Education school requires a multiyear commitment from leaders and staff. The first step in this process is for staff to identify a set of character traits and behaviors for themselves and students. Students are expected to grow as individuals, build character, and make genuine contributions to the world. The program emphasizes both relational character (e.g., kindness, honesty, integrity) and performance character (e.g., organization, perseverance, craftsmanship) in students and staff. Each school articulates its performance character traits by defining "habits of scholarship." In EL Education schools, teachers create a classroom climate where students are excited about the opportunity and challenge of work, feel accountable to the group for deadlines, and take pride in doing a better job than they thought they could. Teachers are asked to identify specific developmentally appropriate behaviors associated with the habits as learning targets that are taught and that students are held accountable for. The habits of scholarship also guide the school's approach to learning and the culture created within the building. Teachers plan opportunities to develop character through collaborative work that takes place in learning "expeditions" and community-building activities. Students participate in service-learning to foster relational character and to make meaningful contributions to the community. Service-learning is also viewed as an integral part of academic work and an opportunity to gain academic skills.
A major goal of EL Education is that every student will be known and cared for. Consistent practices promote respect for all and aim at preventing bullying and discrimination. The program uses an advisory structure referred to as "crew meetings," i.e., small groups, to build relationships between staff and students and to create a positive school culture. Meetings of these groups are expected to occur regularly and to involve significant amounts of time. The meetings help students and teachers get to know each other well. They also provide an opportunity to promote student's social and emotional skill development. Schools are encouraged to develop lessons to directly teach skills such as conflict resolution, problem-solving, and communication that align with their priorities and the needs of their students. EL Education does not provide standardized lessons but offers guidelines and a structure for developing lessons.
The program works to incorporate families in the life of the school by using strategies to make them feel welcome and engage them actively in the school. These include regular communication with families about students' progress and accomplishments, an annual calendar of events that involve families, using data on family participation, and making action plans to maximize family involvement. EL Education also encourages schools to invite community members to participate in the life of the classroom. The program engages community stakeholders on advisory boards and in community meetings. Students serve as ambassadors when community members visit the school and when the students represent the school in the community.
The service-learning model of EL Education teaches students that the skills they learn in school can be put to use to build a better community. Teachers and students research service opportunities to ensure that service-learning projects provide a real benefit to the community, and service-learning is a prime vehicle to teach and take action centered on social justice. Teachers also support student appreciation and stewardship of the natural world through experiences, projects, and products that emerge from authentic service-learning, not just discussion.
EL Education takes four to five years to implement, using a whole-school transformation approach. Given the degree of change and commitment required, only a small number of schools expressing initial interest are selected by the developers. The program's professional development is conducted primarily through a coach assigned to the school and takes place over multiple years in order to support the levels of change occurring across all of the school's systems--structurally, socially, and pedagogically. Interested schools begin EL Education with a one-year contract. A pre-planning year is required in order for schools to explore whether they are ready to make the required commitment to the model. During the pre-planning year participants visit other EL Education schools and attend trainings in order to learn about the requirements of this demanding approach. Once the mutual decision (between the program and the school) has been made to become an EL Education school, school staff spend two to three weeks with an EL Education coach during the summer on site at the school.
As part of the EL Education process, the school rebuilds social and professional structures, and develops a "code of character." This is then shared with others in the school community, including parents and students, who provide input so there is widespread stakeholder agreement on the final statement. The EL Education program is not prescriptive. Rather, the school drives the process by developing a unique and individualized work plan that changes each year based on its unique strengths, weaknesses, needs, and goals.
The EL Education coach serves as a model for how the program's approach is implemented over time and provides support through individual meetings with staff and professional learning communities. The coaching process is cyclical so that participants identify topics to discuss, work with the coach to generate solutions to challenges, report on how these practices worked, and refine solutions.
The program offers a variety of separate trainings for teachers and administrators (onsite and off) throughout the year to address a variety of needs. It encourages the development of leadership cohorts to facilitate change by networking with other schools implementing EL Education. The program also offers two-day site seminars to their model schools. These visits include opportunities to network, observe in-class implementation, and interview students. EL Education asks schools to create a contract to send teachers to these and other off-site trainings for a total of 30-40 days (for all teachers, leaders, and staff) each year. The program also provides tools for monitoring fidelity.
Results of a 2013 quasi-experimental evaluation supported the effectiveness of EL Education. This evaluation was conducted on a sample of 3,016 adolescents in grades 6-8 (Black = 21.2%; Hispanic = 52.1%; 71% qualified for free or reduced lunch). It found that students who participated in the program achieved higher standardized test scores in reading one year after baseline, two years after baseline, and three years after baseline compared to students in the comparison group. Program students also achieved higher standardized test scores in math two years after baseline and three years after baseline compared to students in the comparison group. These differences were statistically significant while controlling for baseline differences in outcome along with other relevant covariates.
|Facing History and Ourselves Setting Ratings|
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Facing History and Ourselves is an educational program that uses teaching practices to promote students' social and emotional learning. These practices are infused in an academic curriculum that can be used in History, Social Studies, or English language arts. The program focuses on historical periods of intergroup conflict that involved racism and prejudice. Through its academic content, the program promotes deep awareness and respect of diversity in students and teachers. The pedagogical approach is designed to help teachers create a supportive and democratic classroom environment that promotes positive youth development in the form of social and ethical reflection and civic learning. The curriculum highlights examples of individual and collective efforts to preserve and strengthen civil society during times of unrest. The program's instructional methods emphasize reflection, interaction, cooperation, deliberation, and discussion of complex and meaningful social and civic issues. They are designed to produce in-depth understanding of historical processes and events, personal connections to the subject matter, and ways of linking the past to current social and civic issues. Social and emotional learning and academic learning are promoted and infused across all Facing History lessons. Classroom strategies teach students to be listeners as well as contributors. Students participate in creating positive norms for class discussions, as well as rules for respectful conversations. For example, students are encouraged to use "I" rather than "you" statements. The program also provides students with extensive practice in discussions and conversations, as well as in perspective-taking. These activities often begin with journaling so that students have an opportunity to clarify their own views. Facing History and Ourselves is working with individual classroom teachers. Additionally, the organization that is providing the program has developed an "innovative school" network that emphasizes a whole-school model. Although individual teachers can implement the program in their own classrooms, the whole-school model includes school-wide strategies to create a culture and shared vocabulary of tolerance and respect, to instill a sense of agency in students and prevent bullying, and to promote academic integration. Schools in the program's Innovative School Network receive strategies for encouraging family and community involvement; inviting scholars, Holocaust survivors, writers, and artists to make classroom presentations and participate in Community Conversations; and facilitating student-led teach-ins for families. These schools are also developing opportunities for service-learning and models for restorative justice.
The program recommends beginning with an intensive training model of two-five days (or several weeks online), followed up with two to three days of onsite coaching, as well as virtual support, during the school year. However, professional development for the program can be accomplished through a hybrid of in-person and online training. Administrators are encouraged to attend the training along with the teachers. Schools implementing Facing History school-wide take part in faculty-wide onsite professional development, while Facing History staff provide the administrators in the Innovative Schools Network with focused sessions and a biannual conference for principals and lead teachers from all ISN schools.
The program offers conferences for districts and regions focused on specific topics. It also creates relevant community-based events, e.g., a speaker on racism in the aftermath of the police shooting of a local youth.
Among the many implementation supports provided by Facing History and Ourselves are a website featuring many digital resources, including streaming video and documentaries, microsites focused on core content (with primary sources, lessons and teaching strategies, audio, etc.), and other resources. Once teachers receive the training, they become part of the program's "educator network" and have access through the website to a free lending library of classroom sets of books, DVDs, curriculum units, and other materials they can borrow for their classrooms. Also offered are webinar-based professional learning communities and coaching options, particularly important when the program is implemented schoolwide. The program also includes fidelity guidelines (based on their outcomes research) that assist teachers in implementing successfully in the classroom and coaches to observe teachers to advice on implementation.
The program emphasizes that they will work with any school that is committed to implementing their approach and that funding should not be an obstacle. Facing History pursues grant support for its core work, and can help a district or school leverage funding to support implementation.
Results of two randomized control trial evaluations (2014 & 2015) supported the effectiveness of Facing History and Ourselves. In sum, these evaluations were conducted with 1867 students in grades 7 through 10 (10% Asian, 26% Black, 31% Hispanic, 10% Multi-Racial, and 24% White) and found that participants that received the intervention reported more prosocial behavior, greater ability to take others' perspective (empathy), better classroom climate, greater civic self-efficacy, greater "political tolerance", better academic achievement (historical understanding performance measure) and fewer conduct problems at post-test, compared to students from the control group. Students in the intervention group also reported that their teachers used more practices that promoted an "open" classroom climate and provided opportunities for "civic engagement", compared to students in the control group.
keepin' it REAL is a substance use prevention program that consists of ten free-standing lessons to promote social and emotional learning primarily in grade 7, but may also be taught in grades 6 and 8. Each lesson requires one 45-minute class period. keepin' it REAL uses a decision-making model to encourage students to make good decisions and also emphasizes social awareness and relationship skills. Because the program does not focus on self-management, it is designated complementary.
The primary strategy of keepin' it REAL is to teach students ways of dealing with peer pressure using the acronym REAL: Refuse, Explain, Avoid, and Leave. Students also learn how to recognize risk, value their perceptions and feelings, and make choices that support their values. The program integrates real stories from middle school youth throughout the curriculum through role plays, decision making scenarios, and a series of videos produced by high school youth.
The recommended model of professional development for the teacher implemented version of keepin' it REAL is a two-day training offered by the program developers and their staff. This is typically an in-person training delivered onsite at the school or district. The training can take one of two forms. The first model is a direct training of up to 25 teachers in a school or district in 1 or 2 days. The second is a Train the Trainer model in which a smaller group of teachers or counselors is identified and trained over a full two days and who can then go on to train new teachers in the school or district to create program sustainability. This two-day TOT training includes a practicum with live observations of the new trainers training others. Administrators are encouraged to attend a two-day training but are not required. Training is not offered online. In addition, while some of the materials are available through the publisher without the training, both the developers and CASEL strongly discourage using the program without training.
Results of a randomized control trial and a quasi-experimental study conducted between 2006 and 2010 supported the effectiveness of keepin' it REAL delivered by teachers. The two evaluations included 4,426 students in grade 7 (93% FRL of those who reported). They found that students participating in the program reported lower levels of substance use and lower rates of increase in substance use 14 months after pretest when compared to students in the comparison group. Results also indicated that students participating in keepin' It REAL reported lower levels of substance use and lower rates of increase in substance use 21 months after baseline.
|Lions Quest, Skills for Adolescence Setting Ratings|
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Lions Quest is a skills promotion program available for students in Kindergarten through twelfth grade. Lions Quest Skills for Adolescence is the middle school version of the program. It uses free-standing lessons to promote students' social and emotional learning. The activities and step-by-step instructions provide coverage for self-awareness, social awareness, relationship skills, and responsible decision-making. The focus on self-management, though present, is more limited. Skills for Adolescence is designed to establish a caring, participatory, and well-managed learning environment. It includes a diverse set of instructional practices to be used during the lesson, including pair-share, cooperative group work, discussions, peer teaching, problem-solving scenarios, and group reflection. The program includes worksheets that are assembled into student workbooks that need to be purchased each year for participating students. The 108 lessons in Skills for Adolescence are designed to be implemented over the course of three years. The full curriculum may be too long for some schools, but the program includes suggestions for implementation formats that use fewer lessons. The program materials include guidance for ways teachers can integrate the curriculum content into academic subjects and make the program culturally relevant to diverse students. The program can also be used in Tier 2 and 3 settings with the Response to Intervention model.
Skills for Adolescence creates a leadership team for planning, offers a separate workshop for administrators, and provides guidelines and activities for developing positive school climate. A separate book titled Strengthening Family Relationships offers guidelines for involving families. Family involvement is also promoted through shared homework, workshops for parents, instructions for family involvement in program activities, a book for parents (The Surprising Years) and a guide for leading four parent meetings. In addition to a service-learning component, the program offers guidelines for connecting to the community.
Skills for Adolescenceoffers two days of initial training as their standard professional development model. These workshops are typically provided on site but regional trainings are also available. The regional trainings are offered several times each year and are open to individuals from multiple schools. The initial training can be reduced to one day but CASEL does not endorse this approach given 3-days of training were provided to teachers when the program was evaluated. Administrators are encouraged (but not required) to attend the initial training. The program also offers an optional administrator workshop. The initial training is considered introductory. Follow-up training for teachers beyond the introductory level is typically content- and school-specific and is called a "Re-Quest." Re-Quest workshops are provided upon request. Skills for Adolescence provides technical support online and by phone. In addition, the website offers extensive resources to support implementation, including sample lessons, implementation guidelines, consulting and booster sessions, and possible funding sources. Two types of Training-Of-Trainer models are available to support sustainability. An intensive national trainer workshop qualifies a trainer to offer the professional development to any school. Alternatively, a less-intensive affiliate trainer model enables teachers from a district or region to be trained to offer training within their own system.
Results of a randomized control trial and a quasi-experimental evaluation conducted between 2003 and 2007 supported the effectiveness of Lions Quest Skills for Adolescence. The two evaluations included 6,326 students in grades 5-7 (Black = 18%; Hispanic = 34%; White = 26% of reporting participants). The evaluations found that students who participated in the program reported lower levels of drug use, more positive self-perceptions of their own self-efficacy to refuse offers of drugs and alcohol, and more positive perceptions of their own social skills compared to students participating in the control group at a post-test 12 months after baseline. Two of these effects - lower levels of drug use and more positive self-efficacy for refusing offers of drugs and alcohol - were shown to persist at a follow-up interval one year after the post-test. All of these effects were statistically significant when controlling for outcome pretest as well as other relevant covariates.
Michigan Model for Health™ is a health education curriculum that uses free-standing SEL lessons to promote students' social and emotional learning. The program originated in Michigan but is appropriate for use in any state. The middle-school version, designed for use in grades 7 and 8, is comprised of five units (6-15 lessons on average per unit). Lessons are approximately 45 minutes long. The first unit (15 lessons) focuses on teaching SEL skills and is considered the foundation of the curriculum. It is followed by units on healthy eating and physical activity, smoking prevention, alcohol and other drug use prevention, and STI/HIV education. The goal of the lessons in the SEL unit is to help students understand diversity and create an atmosphere of acceptance and belonging. As part of bullying prevention, students learn to take action to walk away and get help. The curriculum also engages students in advocacy projects.
The program includes a crosswalk with the National Health Education standards, and there is a rubric for student assessment. It offers family resource sheets and other materials that provide information to parents on what is being taught, as well as encouragement to use the skills at home. Family activities include interviews with parents to learn about their views. The program also offers an instructional module devoted to service-learning at the middle-school level.
Michigan Model for Health™ is designated as a Complementary program because most of the SEL programming is contained in a single unit presented in one year.
Michigan Model for Health™ uses two different models of professional development for schools and districts in and out of the state of Michigan. Within the state there is a network of regional school health coordinators that are certified to deliver training to local schools or districts, often with state funding support. This training is typically one to two days long but can be extended to accommodate teachers' or participants' schedules, if necessary. Michigan Model for Health™ does not typically provide extensive follow up to schools or districts once they are trained but support is available if needed. For schools or districts outside Michigan, onsite training is not available but the program offers annual summer regional Train the Trainer workshops. The format of these is a hybrid of two days of online training followed by three days of in-person training at the regional location. Following participation in a workshop, trainers are prepared to return to their home school or district and train their own teachers. The time period of that training varies and is largely up to the individual school or district. The training model for schools outside of Michigan has not been evaluated.
The format for how the Michigan Model for Health™ is implemented in schools varies. Typically the program recommends starting with the SEL module and then doing additional modules (many of which are topic-specific) with the recommendation that the five core modules always be covered.
Results of a 1996 quasi-experimental evaluation supported the program's effectiveness. This evaluation was conducted with a sample of 442 adolescents in grades 6 and 7. It found that compared to students in the comparison group students who participated in the program reported lower frequencies of using drugs and alcohol at post-test. These effects were assessed 21 months after baseline, and group differences were statistically significant while controlling for baseline differences in the outcome measure.
My Teaching Partner is a professional development program delivered exclusively through coaching that is designed to improve teaching practices (i.e., the quality of teachers' interactions with students) as a way to promote student's social and emotional development. An important element of the program is its use of the theoretically and empirically-based CLASS framework that organizes teacher-student interactions into three broad domains: Emotional Support, Classroom Organization, and Instructional Support (citation). Within these three domains are distinct dimensions: reflecting teacher behavior, student behavior and teacher-student interactions. The dimensions that reflect aspects of students' personal and social competence arePositive Climate, Teacher Sensitivity and Regard for Adolescent Perspectives, Instructional Learning Formats, and Analysis and Problem Solving.
Coaching to help increase the frequency of targeted student-teacher interactions is delivered to teachers across a series of cycles. For example, the coaching method encourages teachers to practice responding to student ideas and to use methods such as argumentation and peer dialogue to promote this skill. In each cycle coaches observe teachers' interactions with students using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (Pianta, Hamre, & Mintz, 2011) and then provide feedback following a standard protocol. The coaching encourages teachers to reflect and set goals for how they intend to adjust their practice to promote student's learning. The cycle is repeated every three to four weeks over the course of an academic year. MTP is designated as a Complementary program because its primary emphasis is on the teachers' role in promoting student social and emotional development. The approach places less emphasis on building student awareness or providing students with strategies to actively engage in their own skill development.
My Teaching Partner (MTP) recommends a three-year implementation process. To make wider dissemination feasible, the program is transitioning to solely a Training of Trainers (TOT) model, but direct coaching of teachers by MTP is still available. The original coaching by MTP is the training model that was evaluated, and hence the one that CASEL recommends until the TOT model has also been tested. In the TOT model MTP provides an intensive two-day training to designated mentors, beginning with initial training and intensive ongoing coaching of the mentors in the first year. Over the next two years MTP moves into a supportive role, helping the school/district transition into a fully internalized training model in which the mentors implement the training. The MTP coaching is typically provided via Web-based video and phone calls, but the coach also works onsite three to four times during the first year. MTP also meets with administrators at the beginning of the first year to outline the program and maintains contact with them as needed.
Results of two randomized control trials conducted in 2011 supported the effectiveness of My Teaching Partner. Evaluations included 2,056 students in grades 6-12 (Black=23%; White=71%; approximately 36% of participants in the two trials qualified for free or reduced lunch) and found that participants who received the program exhibited more prosocial behavior (according to observation) and had higher academic achievement at post-test (nine months after baseline) compared to students from the control group, controlling for baseline differences in outcome. The results indicated that the program group's improvement in academic achievement was mediated by improved student-teacher interactions.
|Project Based Learning by Buck Institute for Education Setting Ratings|
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The Buck Institute for Education (BIE) model of project-based learning uses teaching practices to promote students' social and emotional learning. This instructional approach is designed to help teachers make learning highly engaging and developmentally appropriate for secondary students. It trains teachers how to design projects that engage students in collaborative learning within all single and multi-subject areas. The approach does not provide specific guidelines about working with different cultures but is sensitive to the linguistic needs of students and includes guidelines for teachers for adapting projects for English Language Learners. The BIE approach is powerful but demanding. It requires teachers to master a complex array of methods and strategies.
Project-based learning (PBL) establishes a creative and supportive classroom climate with well-thought-out and explicit structures to organize student work around completing group projects. It emphasizes student autonomy and collaboration, including how to work effectively in groups to manage projects, meet deadlines, present information, think critically, solve problems, and use technology wisely. It provides students with opportunities to practice communication and group process skills such as listening and conflict resolution. The approach also gives students experience in goal setting, problem-solving, and self-management. At the core of the BIE approach is a rigorous instructional method that engages students in a process of inquiry focused on complex, authentic questions and problems. Students have "voice and choice" over their own learning and are encouraged to work independently. The program also relies on feedback, revision, and peer evaluation. As part of the BIE approach, students create high-quality products and performances which they present to a public audience. BIE also provides guidelines for creating academic lessons and rubrics for assessing student competencies and presentations. It includes structures for teachers to develop student projects that align with learning standards and provides methods for developing challenging questions, assessing student work, mapping out projects, and managing the process.
Teachers trained by BIE to use project-based learning in the classroom are encouraged to involve parents by supporting students as they work on projects outside of school, lending expertise they might have, and sometimes by being the audience for presentations. The approach also connects students with community experts and supporters. The program recommends creating a community advisory board and helping students to become ambassadors in the community. In addition to promoting academic learning, the BIE approach is designed to build relationships among students and teachers and with the broader community.
BIE offers three types of professional development for its model of project-based learning. The basic training package begins with three consecutive days of an introductory "core" workshop conducted on site. Administrators are encouraged but not required to attend. Schools must also contract separately for a minimum of two day-long onsite sustained support (coaching) visits.
The second professional development package is for districts implementing the program systemically in multiple schools. This systemic model includes the three-day core training along with ongoing structured implementation support over a minimum of three years. This model also includes an implementation planning workshop, a leadership development strand, a capacity-building program that prepares district staff to conduct training workshops and provide coaching in part through a Train the Trainer model and a partnership coach assigned to the district. The partnership coach manages all logistics and provides regular onsite and phone coaching in addition to other implementation supports. When districts use the systemic model, multiple teachers participate from individual schools.
The third level of professional development is offered through a BIE-organized annual international conference (PBL World) and regional training institutes (PBL Academies) that offer additional training opportunities. Examples of this are leadership academy and coaching academy workshops, as well as the core three-day training for individual teachers who may want to attend but do not have institutional support.
Results of a 2010 randomized control trial evaluation supported the effectiveness of the BIE model of Project-Based Learning when conducted in the context of an economics curriculum. This evaluation of the professional development and curriculum content was conducted on a sample of 3,752 twelfth-graders (39.5% Hispanic and 40.7% White). It found that students who received the program outscored their control group peers on a test of economic literacy and on a problem-solving assessment task (17 weeks after baseline), compared to students from the control group and controlling for baseline differences in outcome.
Pure Power is a mindful movement curriculum for students in kindergarten through twelfth grade that promotes students' social and emotional learning through free-standing lessons. The middle and high school curriculum consists of five units that build on one another, entitled Power to Shine, Power of Mindfulness, Power of the Brain-Body Connection, Power of a Balanced Life, and Toolkit for a Balanced Life. Students learn strategies for managing stress, responding versus reacting, acting with compassion, and setting goals. Pure Power is designated as complementary because there is a single set of lessons for the middle and secondary level that is not sequenced across these grade levels, and because the lessons primarily emphasize self-awareness and self-management but have limited coverage of other social-emotional competencies.
There are eight to ten lessons in every unit. Each lesson includes guiding reflective questions, guidance for keeping students engaged, a mindful movement practice, and breathing exercises to relax and refocus. Each lesson closes with tips for using skills at home.
Pure Edge provides tailored support to districts through a flexible professional development model. Ideally, the district commits to naming one person on the administrative team to manage and support implementation. This may be a Health and Wellness Coordinator, Student Services Administrator, or other position depending on district preferences. This manager may field questions from program implementers, connect the program to district priorities, and manage communications, among other tasks. The program itself may be implemented by teachers, counselors, P.E. teachers, and/or outside providers.
Pure Edge offers initial five-day trainings. This training teaches mindful movement postures and basic mindfulness for school-based personnel. When school systems elect to use implementers from outside the school system (e.g., a community partner), sessions on classroom management are also available. After the initial training, Pure Edge offers a variety of supports including site visits. These visits are tailored to meet the needs of schools. During this time trainers may visit classrooms, provide professional development, and meet with implementers. Classroom observation tools are also available to support implementation, and they can be used by trainers and program managers to provide feedback on content delivery and fidelity. Finally, the Pure Edge website includes a resource library with downloadable articles about mindfulness from a neuroscience perspective and additional program materials.
Results from a randomized control trial conducted in 2013 supported the effectiveness of the Pure Power program for high school students. This evaluation included 112 students in one school who were in 9-11th grades (Hispanic = 59%, Black = 22%). The study found that high school students who participated in the program had higher average GPAs compared to students in the control group (outcomes reported one year after baseline while controlling for outcome pretest and student participation).
|Reading Apprenticeship Setting Ratings|
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Reading Apprenticeship is an educational program that uses teaching practices to promote students' social and emotional learning. The program trains teachers on how to infuse these practices into academic curricula with a primary emphasis on tackling the reading of complex texts typical of academic subject areas. The program's instructional framework provides guidance across subject areas and grade levels from middle school to college with a focus on the knowledge and practices to engage students in rigorous academic literacy while also building their social and emotional competence. The program was developed in urban classrooms where linguistically, culturally, racially, and economically diverse populations were the norm.
Teacher practices in Reading Apprenticeship are designed to create a positive classroom environment and a "community of readers." Students engage in activities that help them get to know each other and learn how to have academic conversations with one another. The program relies heavily on working collaboratively in pairs and small groups. Students explore life goals and learn skills to help them achieve those goals. They learn to set goals around reading, as well as how to monitor their progress toward achieving those goals. They also learn a variety of methods and practices to enhance their reading and reading comprehension, including ways to think about texts, how to mark a book, metacognition techniques, and "think aloud" strategies. The program emphasizes "authentic" reading that supports a student's individual interests and strengths. Students think about who the audience of a text is and how different audiences might respond to texts. The program also emphasizes diversity and different cultures. Although the program focuses specifically on reading, it establishes routines of writing and talking with classmates about the academic materials they read and sharing how they made sense of them.
Reading Apprenticeship is designed to help students become persistent in the face of challenges, socially active around reading tasks, and strategicâsetting goals, self-monitoring understanding, reasoning in valued and discipline-specific ways, and coordinating different comprehension strategies to control the reading process, all of which relate to self-management while remaining specific to reading academic materials that are challenging. Through ongoing "metacognitive conversations" in the community of readers the goal is that students will learn that reading requires problem solving and that efforts to make sense of texts will increase comprehension.
The program is organized according to four dimensions:
A curricular component called Reading Apprenticeship Academic Literacy (RAAL) includes three separate units for reading in different subject areas, each with structured lessons that teach the Reading Apprenticeship processes and strategies in a particular area: Reading Self and Society (20 lessons in 10 weeks), Reading History (16 lessons in 10 weeks) and Reading Science (14 lessons in 11 weeks).
The curriculum is designed to be taught as a stand-alone course, but it can also be implemented in other ways, such as integrating units into relevant subjects (e.g., integrating Reading Science into the science curriculum). In each unit students learn the reading strategies and methods in the structured lessons and then continue to apply those strategies as they progress.
Reading Apprenticeship could be implemented schoolwide or in multiple subject areas depending on how many teachers participate in the professional development.
The training model for Reading Apprenticeship is flexible. If teachers cannot participate in training during the summer, the program can provide the initial training at the beginning of the school year aided by ongoing coaching. Reading Apprenticeship recommends a total of 7-10 days of professional development over the course of the first 12-14 months. Typically participating teachers receive 3-4 initial days of professional development in the summer, followed by 3-4 days during the following school year, divided between the fall and spring. Schools that choose the full 10-day training model receive 3 days of training the following summer as well. The program recommends that principals attend the initial training and offers an optional online course for administrators that provides implementation support.
The program provides coaching over the course of the year. Reading Apprenticeship coaches lead the teacher groups and also provide classroom coaching. The ongoing coaching is also designed to build capacity, allowing teachers to become Reading Apprenticeship facilitators/trainers for their school. The program is not considered a full training of trainer model, however, because Reading Apprenticeship facilitators work only within their own schools. Teacher groups (professional learning communities) are encouraged to meet independently as well as with the coach. Each group chooses a teacher leader who convenes the group and helps to keep the group on track using materials provided by the developers. Reading Apprenticeship recommends a multiyear professional development process that takes approximately two years for a teacher to becoming a facilitator capable of providing training.
Ideally several teachers in a school will participate in Reading Apprenticeship, but the program also provides training to teachers from a single subject area.
Results from a randomized control trial and a quasi-experimental evaluation conducted between 2010 and 2011 supported the effectiveness of Reading Apprenticeship. These evaluations included 5,595 students in ninth grade as well as 47 classrooms of eleventh-graders (Black = 23.3%, Hispanic = 31.8%, Other = 17%, White = 22.6%; FRL = 67% for those who reported). Students in ninth grade who participated in the program earned higher grade point averages, achieved higher standardized test scores in English language arts and math, and had lower rates of office referrals when compared to students in the control group. These outcomes were statistically significant and were assessed approximately nine months after baseline and accounted for outcome pretest scores. For eleventh-grade classrooms that participated in the program, higher scores were achieved on standardized test scores for History, and teachers in those classrooms self-reported using teaching practices that promote SEL to a higher degree than teachers in the comparison group. Both of these outcomes were statistically significant, and outcomes related to teaching practices were assessed 12 months after baseline while accounting for outcome pretest scores.
|Responding in Peaceful and Positive Ways Setting Ratings|
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Responding in Peaceful and Positive Ways (RiPP) is a violence prevention program that uses free-standing lessons to promote students' social and emotional learning. RiPP is designed to be implemented in grades 6th, 7th and 8th with 16 sessions in each. RiPP is typically taught on a weekly basis during social studies, health, or science and is designed to be implemented by a prevention facilitator rather than a teacher. RiPP is aligned with the developmental changes taking place during the middle school years, when young people often report feeling less safe and are more likely to report being victimized at school. The program places a heavy emphasis on teaching social problem-solving and conflict-resolution skills. In sixth grade students learn that they have nonviolent options when conflicts arise. In seventh grade they learn that friendships are the place to work on resolving conflicts before testing these skills in the larger community. In eighth grade students are encouraged to see high school as a chance to imagine the future, set goals, make new friends, practice forgiveness, work hard in school, and apply for a job. The program emphasizes practice within the classroom and includes strategies for calming down. RiPP also uses games and group work to teach students a social problem-solving system. It also uses team building, repetition, mental rehearsal, and practice.
RiPP professional development is designed for a designated program specialist who delivers the curriculum to all students in the school. The professional development for these individuals includes 3 days of training regarding 6th grade program implementation, and one and a half days each regarding 7th and 8th grade program implementation. Coaching involves a monthly phone call to check in and offer technical assistance. The program specialist also receives training in how to supervise unloading of buses in the morning, loading of buses in the afternoon, and in how to monitor lunches. There are concerns about the capacity of this small organization to support large-scale implementation given its current infrastructure.
Results of a randomized control trial and two quasi-experimental evaluations conducted between the years 2001 and 2003 supported the effectiveness of Responding in Peaceful and Positive Ways. In sum the three evaluations included 1975 students in the 6th grade and 7th grade (Black = 31%; Hispanic = 17%; White = 49%; approximately 65% of reporting participants qualified for free or reduced lunch) and found that participants that received the program reported less drug use (4 months after baseline); fewer interpersonal problems (4 months and 21 months after baseline); less victimization (12 months after baseline), and fewer conduct problems (4 months, 7 months, and 21 months after baseline). Additionally, significant program impact was sustained at follow-up for life satisfaction (both 4 months after post-test).
School-Connect is a lesson-based approach to SEL that also promotes students' social and emotional development through teaching practices. While the program is designed for students in grades nine through twelve, some middle schools also use this program to help students prepare for high school. Lessons are usually implemented during advisory or freshman seminar, although they can be adapted and used in multiple settings.
School-Connect has four modules with 20 lessons each. Modules include: Creating a Supportive Learning Community, Developing Self-Awareness and Self-Management, Building Relationships and Resolving Conflicts, and Preparing for College and Workforce. Each lesson is designed to reflect the "ABC's of Learning," which School-Connect defines as "autonomy," "belonging," and "competence." In practice, this means that there are multiple opportunities in most lessons for students to engage actively with the material and one another. School-Connect also provides guidance around student-led discussions and other strategies for student-centered engagement. Every lesson includes an opener, essential questions, wrap-up, and opportunities for reflection.
All lessons have "lesson extensions" that range from brief follow-up activities to "literature links," writing prompts, and research projects. These, along with the opportunities for reflection found in each lesson, are designed to reinforce, apply, and generalize aspects of the lesson beyond the classroom and into students' school, home, and community.
School-Connect provides two options for initial professional development. The first, School-Connect Institute, is an intensive two-day training that takes place over the summer at various locations around the country. This training provides an SEL overview, engagement strategies, implementation guidelines, and opportunities to practice facilitation of student-driven discussions. The learning is experiential, allowing teachers to experience the student-centered curriculum first-hand.
The second option is on-site training that typically takes place in a single day or two-day session. This in-service option provides a similar knowledge base as the School-Connect Institute, but also allows schools and districts to tailor the learning to their particular needs and contexts.
School-Connect materials include an Implementation Toolkit, which provides guidance on forming a leadership team, defining program needs and goals, designing an implementation plan, and initiating and monitoring implementation. The Implementation Toolkit also provides resources for classroom observations, teacher self-assessments, student skills assessment, and teacher and student satisfaction measurements. In addition, School-Connect offers an Evaluation Toolkit to help school teams define goals and analyze data.
Results from a quasi-experimental evaluation conducted in 2014-2015 support the effectiveness of School-Connect. The evaluation included 947 high school students who were in 9th grade (Hispanic = 63%, White = 18%, Black = 15%). This evaluation found that students who participated in the program demonstrated higher overall passing rates in four core subjects and were less likely to have received discipline referrals for being disruptive in class or rude to an adult compared to students in the comparison group (outcomes reported 12 months after baseline while controlling for outcome pretest). The evaluation also assessed the effects of the program six months after posttest when students were in 10th grade (all follow-up analyses controlled for previous scores on outcome measures). At follow up, students who participated in the program were less likely to have received any disciplinary referral, and outperformed the comparison group on social studies grades and social studies passing rates. However, the evaluation also found that the comparison group outperformed students who participated in the program on math grades, English language arts grades, and English language arts passing rates. For this reason, School-Connect is designated as Promising.
|Second Step: Student Success Through Prevention for Middle School Setting Ratings|
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"The Second Step Program" is a skills promotion program for students in preschool through eighth grade. The middle school version uses free-standing lessons to promote students' social and emotional learning. The program uses a variety of interactive strategies that include direct instruction, video modeling, partner and group discussion, behavioral skill practice, and interactive homework assignments. Every lesson includes videos that are visually appealing to youth and support program delivery. During the lessons students learn how to work together in groups to practice empathy, communication, and problem-solving, and to further explore lesson topics. Included in the program materials are DVDs that illustrate or elaborate on concepts or provide video models of the skill practice activities. Grade 6 has 15 lessons, grade 7 has 13 lessons, and grade 8 has 13 lessons. The program includes lessons on bullying prevention and substance abuse prevention. There is extensive practice in the lessons and beyond (e.g., reflective writing about skill use). "The Second Step Program" also includes teacher practices designed to reinforce the content outside of the lesson. It also provides suggestions for integrating the program content into other academic subjects. Online resources are available to support planning, implementation, and sustainability. For families the program offers suggestions for family-based activities, including interactive homework assignments that require the involvement of an adult.
"The Second Step Program" provides highly structured and directive training. It consists of four modules that use a video-based, online format. Each module lasts between 30 to 60 minutes and is accompanied by written materials. The first module provides an overview of the program for all school staff and the administrators. The other three modules are for teachers who will be teaching the curriculum. These videos are intended to be watched in a group setting (not by individual teachers), because practice in small groups is an integral part of the training experience. One person in the training group is asked to serve as a "facilitator" whose role is to arrange the room, manage the video, and facilitate discussion, group work, and activities. The online group training modules (as well as other resource materials including lesson preparation videos) are available with the activation key that comes with the program's purchase. At a minimum, administrators and all school staff are strongly encouraged to participate in the training session for the first module. The program also offers a two-day leadership institute held in Seattle each June for district leaders to form a professional learning community across multiple implementing school districts. Each yearly cohort typically consists of 15-20 leaders from around the country and they continue to meet through regular structured web-based meetings throughout the year. Many other kinds of trainings and implementation supports are available with "The Second Step Program". Lesson preparation videos that walk teachers through the process of preparing for each lesson during each of the middle school years are also very popular. In addition, the program offers optional professional development opportunities for diverse stakeholders, as well as checklists and observational tools to monitor the fidelity of implementation.
Results of a 2013 randomized control trial supported the effectiveness of "The Second Step Program". This evaluation was conducted on a sample of 3,616 adolescents in sixth grade (Black = 35.2%; Hispanic = 26.1%; Multiracial = 14.8%; White = 24%). It found that students who participated in the program reported lower levels of physical aggression at post-test compared to students in the control group. These effects were assessed approximately nine months after baseline, and group differences were statistically significant while controlling for baseline differences in the outcome measure.
Step Up is a middle school program adapted from the Camp MakeBelieve Kids 8-Step SEL elementary school program. Step Up includes free-standing SEL lessons that can be implemented as a stand-alone course during an advisory period or health class. The Step Up curriculum teaches 8 specific sets of concepts, skill-sets, and strategies designed to promote healthy interactions and safe regulation of feelings, thoughts, and behaviors. These 8 concepts, called "steps", are: Social Connections, Understanding and Expressing Feelings, Respecting Boundaries, Building Empathy, Mood Control, Stopping Manipulation, Self-Regulation, and Motivation. The steps are intentionally sequenced so that each steps' messages and skills build on the next. There are a total of 16 lessons (two for each of the eight steps), and each lesson is designed to last 25 minutes. Each lesson begins with a goal-directed "Breath-Work" strategy that is designed to promote physical relaxation, reduce stress, and re-focus energy on the upcoming lesson. A student journal accompanies the curriculum that allows students to reflect on the lessons outside of class and review information for clarity. Parents are included through informational memos called "Keeping Parents in the Loop." Step Up is designated as complementary because when the materials are broken out across multiple years they do not provide comprehensive coverage of the five SEL domains.
The original version of this curriculum is a universal prevention program that includes components related to suicide prevention. The curriculum was adapted for the CASEL program review process because CASEL does not review suicide prevention programs. The Step 6 lessons focus on teaching students to recognize manipulation strategies and associate the behaviors with illustrations of trash can characters, known as the "Trashy Tricks." The intent of these lessons is to teach students that methods of manipulation are not acceptable, should not be practiced, and that students should be conscious to ensure they are not being manipulated themselves. Given the developmental literature on the power of adolescent norms, it is important for schools using this program to think carefully about the risks involved in having students practice negative behaviors, and the norms that may be established. Guidelines about how this content should be used is addressed in the curriculum and training.
Prior to designing a specific training model for schools, school administrators are invited to attend a virtual conference with the program developer. Following the introductory session, the most basic training format for Tier 1 instructors is a two-day, in-person, on-site workshop with a minimum of 10 and a maximum of 50 participants. There is one trainer for every 20 participants. Participants are provided with the program overview, key strategies, practice opportunities, important trainer tips, and resources that allow them to deliver the lesson plans with fidelity. They also receive curriculum-based assessment tools which consist of student self-report measures, student post-tests, as well as tools for parents & teachers to measure changes in observed behavior. In addition, instructors may participate in a total of six bi-monthly virtual conference calls for support and technical assistance. A Train the Trainer workshop is offered to instructors who have attended the basic training and have successfully implemented the program for at least one cycle.
Results of a 2014 quasi-experimental evaluation provided evidence for the effectiveness of Step Up. The evaluation was conducted on a sample of 64 students in four 8th grade classrooms. The evaluation found that compared to students in the comparison group, students who participated in the program were rated by their teachers to have demonstrated higher levels of self-regulation, social-competence, empathy, and responsibility. These effects were assessed after the students in the intervention group had participated in the program for two years and group differences were statistically significant while controlling for baseline differences in the outcome measure.
|Student Success Skills Setting Ratings|
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Student Success Skills is a skills promotion program that uses teaching practices and free-standing SEL lessons to support social and emotional learning. It is designed to be implemented in a regular class where the teacher delivers five lessons that provide students with strategies for (1) setting goals, monitoring progress, and sharing success; (2) building a caring, supportive, and encouraging environment; (3) developing and practicing memory and cognitive skills; (4) calming anxiety and managing emotions; and (5) developing healthy optimism. The stress reduction techniques include mindfulness strategies such as muscle relaxation. The dosage is one lesson per week with three booster sessions, one for each of the following months. After completing the five lessons teachers are expected to cue and coach students to apply the appropriate skills and strategies during academic lessons throughout the year to master the curriculum and develop a healthy and supportive classroom climate.
In addition to the universal program, Student Success Skills offers a group counseling format for students who need it. The program also includes a four-session parent workshop that provides parents with an overview of the skills and strategies their children are being taught as well as strategies to improve communication, problem-solving skills, and positive parenting.
The professional development recommended by Student Success Skills consists of one full day of training. This is done in person and can be provided on site or regionally at a professional conference. Teachers may also attend a summer training institute. Each teacher receives a classroom manual as part of the training. After the training participants are provided videotapes of trained teachers or counselors. Access to a trainer is available to support ongoing implementation. Student Success Skills has developed a Train the Trainer model in which group of teachers can attend a regional training or summer institute and then implement the program in their school and be observed via videotapes they send back to Student Success Skills for review. If teachers meet criteria they can be certified by Student Success Skills as trainers. There is also training for counselors to support the small-group format. Other implementation supports include consultations with district leaders before and after training to aid high-quality implementation, consultation for an implementation evaluation, and coaching. In addition, the program offers a DVD with PowerPoint lessons for teachers as well as a 20-minute overview of the program for both teachers and administrators that reviews some lessons, key goals and components, and the program's evidence base. The program also offers rating scales and observational tools to monitor the fidelity of implementation.
Results from an randomized control trial (in press) and a quasi-experimental evaluation conducted in 2011 supported the effectiveness of Student Success Skills. The two evaluations included 545 students in grades 7, 9, and 10 (Hispanic = 73.6%, White = 19.7%; FRL = 81% of those who reported). These evaluations found that middle school students who participated in the program achieved higher standardized test scores in reading and math as well as more positive perceptions of their own social and emotional skills when compared to middle school students in the control group (outcomes achieved three months after baseline while controlling for outcome pretest). High school students who participated in the program achieved higher standardized test scores in reading and math when compared to high school students in the control group (outcomes achieved 12 months after baseline while controlling for outcome pretest). For both of these evaluations, the program was facilitated by a school counselor in a regular classroom setting. Of note is that the high school evaluation assessed effects of the Spanish translation of this program.
TestEdge is a stress reduction program that consists of five free-standing lessons to promote social and emotional learning in high school. The program is delivered in the classroom via video in which teenage actors present the information. The five video lessons are each broken down into several shorter segments. In between the segments, the teacher leads a discussion based on provided prompts and questions. The program is designated complementary because of its limited focus on social awareness and relationship skills, and because it is designed to be delivered in a single school year.
The primary strategy of TestEdge is to teach students ways of dealing with daily stress by using breathing relaxation tools. Three tools are taught in sequence of complexity. The first tool's purpose is to help students calm down when they experience strong negative emotions. The second is aimed at changing a feeling or attitude from negative to positive. The third is designed for solving problems by becoming calm and using intuition. All three tools incorporate deep breathing techniques.
The program encourages frequent practice of the offered techniques. Additionally, each video lesson includes printed materials for students, which provide the opportunity to review and learn more about the information presented in the video lesson, as well as for reflection and practice.
TestEdge recommends a half-day training. There are two options - on site and virtual. The on-site training is not required but is recommended because it is in-person and includes time to practice applying skills and linking them to specific classroom experiences. TestEdge will send one of their own staff members or an educational consultant to instruct teachers and/or school counselors. This training covers relevant aspects of neuroscience, reviews the manual, and reviews videos presented on the TestEdge CD-ROM (which is provided as part of the training). For each video, the training follows a sequence of: watch, review, apply/practice - the same pattern teachers are encouraged to follow with their students in a social collaborative classroom framework.
The alternative virtual training involves the TestEdge CD-ROM along with a 90-minute webinar. The live webinar covers the same content as the on-site training but in a more condensed format. The TestEdge CD-ROM takes teachers through the step-by-step process of implementing this program and includes the training videos, the manual, and all the student lessons in PDF format.
Ongoing training or coaching is not offered but TestEdge provides free follow-up phone consultations. There are no dedicated administrator trainings and no fidelity measures.
Results of a 2007 randomized control trial supported the effectiveness of Test Edge. This evaluation was conducted on a sample of 749 adolescents in 10th grade (White = 43%; Hispanic = 36%; Other = 21%; approximately 14.3% of participants qualified for free or reduced lunch) and found that students participating in the intervention reported lower levels of test anxiety, negative affect, emotional discord, and interactional difficulty at post-test compared to students from the control group. The posttest occurred four months after baseline and analyses controlled for baseline differences in the outcome measure.
The Fourth R is a health education curriculum for students in ninth grade that includes free-standing SEL lessons that promote students' social and emotional learning. It is comprised of three units with seven lessons in each. All the lessons are designed to be implemented for 75 minutes or divided into two shorter lessons. The three units cover personal safety and injury prevention, healthy growth and sexuality, and substance use and abuse. The lessons in the first unit focus on teaching relationship skills, social awareness and self-awareness, and decision-making skills, with a strong emphasis on practice of communication skills supported by elaborate role plays. The program materials include short video clips with teen actors demonstrating different types of communication. Also offered are guidelines on schoolwide implementation of the program. The Fourth R is considered complementary because the majority of the SEL programming is contained in a single unit presented in one year. It also does not include instruction around self-management.
The Fourth R offers a five-hour training usually conducted in-person and onsite, although an online version is also available. This training covers the curriculum content, videos on how to teach role-playing, and practice of skills. The program recommends the in-person training whenever a school or district intends to train ten or more teachers (with a maximum of 60). In most cases schools or districts are encouraged to request a site license for the Fourth R that allows them to use the materials repeatedly and have free access to the online training. The online training is identical to the in-person training, with content and practice offered through slides and videos. It is recommended when only a few teachers from a single school need to be trained. Online training is free for anyone who purchases the materials for the Fourth R or receives the in-person training. Although the program does not offer regional trainings, they do ask interested schools if teachers from nearby regions can attend a planned training in order to maximize the opportunity for other schools to receive it. As-needed technical assistance from the Fourth R is available. Coaching is not typically offered, but the program has created a Web-based "community of practice" that includes updated materials, webinars, and other content.
Another option is a Train the Trainer model to develop what the Fourth R calls "master trainers." This is appropriate for schools that have implemented the Fourth R and have teachers who have already delivered it at the classroom level. In this model Fourth R returns to a school district for a two-day training and trains a few of the experienced teachers to be trainers for future teachers in the district or the nearby region. On the first day a master trainer leads the training. The participants use the second day for practice and presentations of the program to either fellow teachers or teachers new to the Fourth R program. This training includes a master trainer manual and ongoing technical support.
Results of a 2009 randomized control trial evaluation supported the effectiveness of Fourth R. This evaluation was conducted on a sample of 1,722 adolescents in ninth grade (predominantly white). It found that participants who received the intervention reported lower rates of physical dating violence at post-test (30 months after baseline) compared to students from the control group, controlling for baseline differences in rate of dating violence.
|Wyman's Teen Outreach Program (TOP) Setting Ratings|
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Wyman's Teen Outreach Program (TOP) uses free-standing SEL lessons and community service to promote students' social and emotional development. The TOP curriculum includes lessons that address content on adolescent development: skill-building, connections with others, and learning about one's self. Within each area of content, the curriculum includes foundational, intermediate, and advanced lessons that are designed to meet the developmental needs of young people in grades 6 through 12. Each of the 120+ lessons is written for a 45 minute time period with an additional extension activity available if time allows. The TOP curriculum is designed to allow for sequenced programming over multiple years (e.g., as part of a whole-school middle school approach), with a minimum duration of 9 months.
In addition to the curriculum lessons, a major component of the program is a minimum of 20 hours of community service each year. The community service component has four phases: preparation, action, reflection, and celebration. Most of the time is spent in action, with reflection happening continuously throughout the community service experience. Service can involve direct action (e.g., tutoring, building a playground or garden), indirect action (e.g., bake sales, blood drives), and civic action for older students (e.g., voter registration, public speaking, educational theatre and awareness programs). There is a process through which students are able to choose the specific type of service they want to engage in.
This program uses a Training of Trainers (TOT) model, partnering with school districts or community organizations who implement TOP in schools and other settings. The TOT training is offered quarterly in St. Louis, Missouri. In some cases with large school districts, Wyman will offer the training onsite at schools. The TOT training is five days long and is facilitated by two TOP trainer instructors. The first 2.5 days cover the facilitator training, during which participants learn how to directly implement TOP in the classroom with students in 6th - 12th grade. The next 2.5 days focus on teaching participants how to train others in TOP and structure their TOP implementation to ensure quality programming within their home organization.
Wyman provides technical assistance that can be facilitated onsite or offsite depending on each partner organization's needs, and may consist of calls to Wyman trainers, coaching, or webinars on special topics. In addition, data collection and reporting are supported through Wyman Connect, the TOP data system. An onsite visit is also included as part of the quality assurance process and typically takes place at the end of the first year of implementation. Additional onsite visits are conducted regularly thereafter.
Additional two-day trainings are offered during each summer in different cities, and are open to all partners within the Wyman National Network. These include booster trainings for in-class facilitators, as well as topics selected based on partners' needs, such as trauma-informed positive youth development training, special topics in SEL, community service learning, and understanding group dynamics. Wyman also offers Learning Exchanges for program leadership to promote implementation fidelity and to address other topics that emerge as critical within the National Network.
Results from a randomized control trial published in 1997 and two quasi-experimental evaluations published in 2001 and 2016 respectively supported the effectiveness of Wyman's Teen Outreach Program for middle and high school students. In sum, these evaluations included 4,160 students who were in 7th and 9th - 12th grades (Black = 59%, White = 28%, Hispanic = 12%). Two of these evaluations found that high school students who participated in the program were less likely to report failing a course, being suspended, or becoming pregnant compared to students in the control group (outcomes reported 9 months after baseline while controlling for outcome pretest). One quasi-experimental evaluation found that middle school students who participated in the program were less likely to report failing grades or skipping class compared to students in the comparison group (outcomes reported 9 months after baseline while controlling for outcome pretest).